ISSN 2312-5160

Current Issues of Mass Communication, 2016, no. 20, pp. 08-22

ISSN 2312-5160

DOI: https://doi.org/10.17721/2312-5160.2016.20.8-22

Full text, PDF (in Ukrainian)


Memorial Culture in Ukraine in the Context of Media Perception of Historical Problems (based on documentaries about the Holocaust and Holodomor)

Juergen Grimm (a), Volodymyr Rizun (b), Andreas Enzminger (a), Yurii Havrylets (b)*, Sergii Tukaiev (b), Maksym Khylko (b), Bogdana Nosova (b)

(a) University of Vienna, Department of Communication, 1 Universitätsring, 1010 Vienna, Austria

(b) Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Institute of Journalism, 36/1 Melnikova str., 04119 Kyiv, Ukraine

* Corresponding author’s e-mail address: youri1985[@]gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT

This study sets out the results of media effects experiment of two historical documentaries, conducted within joint research project “Broadcasting History in the Transnational Space” by the Vienna University and Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv researchers’ team. The main objectives of the study were to explore the impact of Holocaust and Holodomor documentaries on personal traits changing, psychological inclinations, as well as on representations of historical issues. Juergen Grimm’s model “Multidimensional-Imparting-of-History” (MIH) was used for assessing imparting history.

The method of modelling was the basic method used during the research. It covers empirical indices of humanitarian values, national identity as well as European and Asian identification. Total of 185 student volunteers (1st to 3rd year of studies at Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv) were involved in the experiment. Students watched two documentaries about two major historical tragedies of the 20th century: Holocaust (Genocide of Jews) in Europe during 1939–1945 and Holodomor (Great Artificial Famine) in Ukraine during 1932–1933. Before and after being exposed to the documentaries, students filled out a questionnaire that included social-identity, national-identity as well as psychological parts.

The main finding of the experiment is the students’ significant predilection to compromise and reduce conflictive and aggression traits. Under the impact of both documentaries, we observed the growth of the disposition for transnational and trans-ethnic community-building (Communitas Skills) and general tendency towards cosmopolitan problem-solving and commitment for universal human rights (Political Humanitas).

 

KEYWORDS: memorial culture; media effect; documentary; Holodomor; Holocaust.

 

REFERENCES

  1. Vlasiuk, H. (2015), “How the boy from the concentration camp became a Facebook star”, available at: http://zaxid.net/news/showNews.do?yak_hlopchik_z_kontstaboru_ stav_zirkoyu_facebook&objectId=1339567 (accessed 05 November 2016).
  2. Zaromb, F., Butler, A.C., Agarwal, P.K. & Roediger, H.L.III (2014), “Collective memories of three wars in United States history in younger and older adults”, Memory & Cognition, Vol. 42, Issue 3, pp. 383–399.
  3. Grimm, J. (2015), “Value orientation and national identity in Russia: A media effect study on the Holocaust documentary “Night and Fog””, Central European Journal of Communication, Vol. 1, pp. 37-62.
  4. Grimm, J. (2012), “Multidimensionale Geschichtsvermittlung. Ein theoretisch-methodisches Konzept zur Untersuchung von Medienwirkungen auf der Basis mediatisierter historischer Stoffe”, Medien & Zeit, no.3, pp. 30–54.
  5. Roediger, H.L.III & Abel, M. (2015), “Collective memory: a new arena of cognitive study”, Trends in Cognitive Sciences, no. 19(7), pp. 359-61, doi: 10.1016/j.tics.2015.04.003.
  6. Alonso A.M. (1988), “The effects of truth: re-presentations of the past and the imagining of community”, Journal of Historical Sociology, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 33-57.
  7. Wertsch, J.V. (2002), Voices of Collective Remembering, Cambridge University Press, 202p.
  8. Wertsch, J.V. & Roediger, H.L.III (2008), “Collective memory: Conceptual foundations and theoretical approaches”, Memory, no. 16, pp.318-326.
  9. Vashkevych, V.М. (2013), “Priorities of the history perception by modern youth”, National and historical memory [Natsionalna ta istorychna pamiat], no. 6. – pp. 25–31, available at: http://nbuv.gov.ua/j-pdf/Ntip_2013_6_5.pdf (accessed 05 November 2016).
  10. Encyclopaedia Britannica (2015), “Holocaust / European History”, available at: http://www.britannica.com/event/Holocaust (accessed 09 December 2015).
  11. TSN.ua (2010), “Security Service of Ukraine named the ultimate number of Holodomor victims”, available at: http://tsn.ua/ukrayina/sbu-nazvala-ostatochnu-kilkist-zhertv-golodomoru-v-ukrayini.html (accessed 05 November 2016).
  12. BBC.com (2013), “Ten facts about the Holodomor”, available at:  http://www.bbc.com/ russian/international/2013/11/131122_golodomor_10_facts (accessed 05 November 2016).
  13. Busselle, R. & Bilandzic, H. (2009), “Measuring narrative engagement”, Media Psychology, no. 12 (4), pp. 321-347.
  14. Krugman, H.E. (1966), “The measurement of advertising involvement”, Public Opinion Quarterly, no. 30 (4), pp. 583-596.
  15. Zick, A., Wolf, C., Küpper, B., Davidov, E., Schmidt, P. & Heitmeyer, W. (2008), “The syndrome of group-focused enmity: The interrelation of prejudices tested with multiple cross-sectional and panel data”, Journal of Social Issues, no. 64 (2), pp. 363-383.
  16. Grimm, J. (2010), “From reality TV to coaching TV. Elements of theory and empirical findings towards understanding the genre”, In Hetsroni, A. (ed.), Reality TV. Merging the Global and the Local, New York: Nova Science, pp. 211-258.
  17. Schwartz, S.H. (2006), “A theory of cultural value orientations: Explication and applications”, Comparative Sociology, no. 5 (2-3), pp. 137-182.
  18. Forum for Methods (2007), Value-Hierarchy-Test. Expanded Version, University of Vienna, MF-Working Paper, 2007/01.
  19. Craik, F.I.M. (2001), “Memory: Levels of processing”, in International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, pp. 9593-9597.
  20. Craik, F.I.M. & Lockhart, R.S. (1972), “Levels of processing: A framework for memory research”, Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, no. 11, pp. 671-684.
  21. Knowles, E.S., Linn, J.A. (eds.) (2004), Resistance and Persuasion, Taylor & Francis, New York.
  22. Tajfel, H. & Turner, J.C. (1986), “The social identity theory of intergroup behaviour”, In Worchel, S. & Austin, W.G. (eds.), The Social Psychology of Intergroup Relations, Nelson-Hall, Chicago, pp.7-24.
  23. Elias, N. (2000), The Civilizing Process. Revised edition, Blackwell Publishing, Malden, MA and Oxford, 592 p.
  24. Fahrenberg, J., Hampel, R. & Selg, H. (1994), Das Freiburger Personlichkeitsinventar: FPI [Freiburg Inventory of Personality], Hogrefe, Gottingen.
  25. Grimm, J. (1999), Fernsehgewalt. Zuwendungsattraktivität – Erregungsverläufe – sozialer Effekt. Zur Begründung und praktischen Anwendung eines kognitiv-physiologischen Ansatzes der Medienrezeptionsforschung am Beispiel von Gewaltdarstellungen, Westdeutscher Verlag GmbH, Opladen, Wiesbaden.
  26. Nussbaum, M.C. (1997), “Kant and cosmopolitanism”, In: Bohman, J. & Lutz-Bachmann, M. (eds.), Perpetual Peace. Essays on Kant’s Cosmopolitan Ideal, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass, pp. 58–77.
  27. Nussbaum, M.C. (2001), The Fragility of Goodness. Luck Ethics in Greek Tragedy and Philosophy. Revised edition, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, London and New York, 544 p.
  28. Hare, W. (2009), “Socratic open-mindedness”, Paideusis, no. 18 (1), pp. 5-16.
  29. Higgins, Ch. (2009), “Open-mindedness in three dimensions”, Paideusis, no. 18 (1), pp. 44-59.
  30. Grimm, J. (2016), Media-Based Holocaust and Holodomor Reception in the Ukraine. Perspectives for a Humanity-Oriented Impartment of History. Contested Memories of the Difficult Past, Kyiv, September 30th – October 1st 2016.
  31. Davis, M.H. (1983), “Measuring individual differences in empathy: Evidence for a multidimensional approach”, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, no. 44, pp. 113–126.
  32. Davis, M.H., Hull, J.G., Young, R.D. & Warren, G.G. (1987), “Emotional reactions to dramatic film stimuli: The influence of cognitive and emotional empathy”, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, no. 52 (1), pp. 126–133.
  33. Freedberg, D. & Gallese, V. (2007), “Motion, emotion and empathy in esthetic experience”, Trends in Cognitive Sciences, no. 11 (5), pp. 197–203.

Comments are closed.