ISSN 2312-5160

Current Issues of Mass Communication, 2015, no. 18, pp. 33-43

ISSN 2312-5160

DOI: https://doi.org/10.17721/2312-5160.2015.18.33-43

Full text, PDF (in Ukrainian)


Social and Communication Technologies of Propagandism of the Links among Europe, Germany and Ukraine in Press of the Reichcommissariat “Ukraine” (in the period from 1 September 1941 to 17 July 1942)

Alexander Kholod *

Kyiv National University of Culture and Arts, 36 Konovaltsia str., Kyiv, 01133, Ukraine

* Corresponding author’s e-mail address: akholod[@]ukr.net

 

ABSTRACT

Three aspects of the problem are studied in this research. The first aspect is the lack of knowledge about a range of European-Ukrainian and German-Ukrainian relations covered by the press controlled by the Reichcommissariat “Ukraine” (hereinafter – RCU) in the period from its foundation up to the beginning of the Battle of Stalingrad. The second aspect is the lack of studies on the identification and description of the specific social and communication technologies of influence through the RCU press on the minds of readers. The third aspect is the inaccuracies detected in previous studies by Ukrainian researchers, in descriptions of methods used in newspapers published under the RCU censorship. To fill these gaps in knowledge, the author has chosen as an object of study the press (newspapers) of the Reichcommissariat “Ukraine” from 1 September 1941 to 17 July 1942. The subject of the study is the range and trends in the Ukrainian-European and Ukrainian-German relations covered by the RCU press in the given period.

In the study, the author identified the range and trends in covering the Ukrainian-European and Ukrainian-German relations in the press of the Reichcommissariat “Ukraine” in the period from 1 September 1941 to 17 July 1942. The main results of the study are the differentiations of journalistic materials in the specified period by two criteria. By the first criterion, we identified a range of topics in journalistic materials, both in quantity and quality, in the following two groups: “Ukrainian-European relations” and ” Ukrainian-German relations.” By the second criterion of the analysis (the quantity and quality of the main trends of Ukrainian-European and Ukrainian-German relations covered by the RCU press from the first day of its foundation, 1 September 1941, to the first day of the Battle of Stalingrad, 17 July 1942) four main trends were outlined, namely: 1) insisting of the RCU press on rightness of Germany’s war against the Bolshevism; 2) imposing of the idea of necessity to work aiming at assisting the German soldiers; 3) promotion of the idea of precedence of German culture as a model for the Ukrainians; 4) propagandism of the advantages of the new, German order in Ukraine.

The study confirmed the author’s hypothesis that in the period prior to the Battle of Stalingrad, the RCU newspapers employed the social and communication technologies of propaganda to more intensively promote the Ukrainian-German relations than the Ukrainian-European relations.

 

KEYWORDS: social and communication technologies, propaganda, media in Reichcommissariat “Ukraine”, Ukrainian-German relations, Ukrainian-European relations.

 

REFERENCES

  1. Hornauer, H. (1944), Zwei Jahre Aufbau und Entwscklung des Verlag und Druckereiwesens im Reichscommissariat Ukraine 1941–1943, Dresden, 68 p.
  2. Chernyakov, B.I. (2005), “Periodical press in the occupied territory of Ukraine”, Scientific Proceedings of the Institute of Journalism [Naukovi Zapysky Instytutu Zhurnalistyky], vol. 18, pp.131-158.
  3. State Archive of Rivne Region in Ukraine (2015), “Die Presse im Reichskornmissariat Ukraine”, R-22, op. 1. Spr. 149. Ark. 21–27.
  4. “Liste der 17 ukrainischen und russischen Zeitungen, die von der Propaganda – Abteilung Ukraine an den Reichskommissar Ukraine Uber goben warden” (1998), in Kosyk, V.M., Ukraine in World War II, Documents: Collection of German Archival Documents, Lviv, vol. 2, pp. 247-248 (in German), 240–241 (in Ukrainian).
  5. Territoriale Veränderungen in Deutschland und deutsch verwalteten Gebieten 1874–1945 (2013), available at: http://www.territorial.de/index.htm (accessed 4.06.2015).
  6. Wikipedia (2015), “Reichskommissariat Ukraine”, available at: http://uk.wikipedia.org/wiki/Рейхскомісаріат_Україна (accessed 4.06.2015).
  7. Chernyakov, B.I. (2003), “Occupation Press in Reichskommissariat Ukraine”, Proceedings of the Research Center of Periodicals at V.Stefanyk Lviv National Library [Zb. prats Naukovo-doslidnoho tsentru periodyky Lvivskoyi natsionalnoyi biblioteky imeni V. Stefanyka], Lviv, pp. 152-159.
  8. Vladymyrov, V.M. (2011), “Press the Third Reich: through self-destruction”, World of Social Communications [Svit sotsialnykh komunikatsiy], KyMU, DonNU, Kyiv, pp. 102–106.
  9. Malchevskyy, I. (1985), “Ukrainian newspapers under German occupation”, in In Call of Kyiv: Ukrainian Nationalism in World War II: Collection of Articles, Memoirs and Documents, Novyy Shlyakh, Toronto-New York, pp. 291-295.
  10. Stafyychuk, Y.P. (1968), Komsomol of Ukraine in Guerrilla Movement in 1941-1944 (Political Work among the Population of the Occupied Areas), Mysl, Moscow, pp. 26.
  11. Chaykovskyy, I. (1966), “Ukrainian periodicals at the time of German occupation, 1941-1944”, Echo of Ukraine – Literature and Art [Homin Ukrainy – Literatura i mystetstvo], no. 7.
  12. Chaykovskyy, I. (1976), Ukrainian periodicals in the Second World War, 1939–1945, Kyiv, Filadelfiya, 19 p.
  13. “Hitler’s order to transfer all power in the occupied territory of the commander of the Wehrmacht” (1963), in Criminal Goals – Criminal Means [Prestupnыe tsely – prestupnыe sredstva], Moscow, pp.47-48.
  14. Central State Archive of Public Organizations of Ukraine (2015), “Two years of development of the publishing and printing in Reichskommissariat Ukraine. 1941–1943”, F. 166, op. 3. Od.zb. 146, 44 p.
  15. Books and Textbooks on the History of Ukraine and World History (2015), “Hitler’s decree on the establishment of the Reichscommisariat Ukraine, available at: http://www.history.vn.ua/book/xrestomatia/635.html (accessed 4.06.2015).

Comments are closed.