ISSN 2312-5160

Current Issues of Mass Communication, 2015, no. 17, pp. 8-21

ISSN 2312-5160


Full text, PDF (in Ukrainian)

Methodology to Study Behavioral Aggression Due to the Impact of Television Programs

Yurii Havrylets (a) *, Volodymyr Rizun (a), Sergii Tukaiev (b), Mykola Makarchuk (b)

(a) Institute of Journalism, Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, 36/1 Melnykova str., Kyiv, 04119, Ukraine

(b) Institute of Biology, Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, 2 Akademika Hlushkova avenue, Kyiv, 04119, Ukraine

* Corresponding author’s e-mail address: youri1985[@]



The problem of violence on television and its impact on behavioural aggression of the audience occupies a leading position in media effects studies. The main objective of the study was to explore the available methodology used by scientists in the United States and in the European Union to explore the behavioural aggression due to the impact of television programs.

Through the classification of findings of the television-induced aggression empirical studies, the methodological framework of the main research methods in this field was formulated. This structure contains two basic types of research methods. First one studies the media-induced aggressive behaviour (using observation and fixing of aggression acts); second one explores the media impact on viewers’ aggressive inclinations. The latter type of techniques does not deal with the behaviour, but only with the ability to act aggressively, and with its help the researcher can only make inference about the likelihood of aggressive actions in the future. Thus, an empirical study of aggressive behaviour is in many aspects more complicated, but this approach allows obtaining more statistically significant data. Instead of that, evaluating aggressive inclinations enables accumulating a large amount of raw (unprocessed) data in faster and easier way.

Results / findings. The first attempt was made to systemize all the methods of the TV-induced aggression studies, used by the U.S. and the EU scientists in their respective explorations. Special emphasis was made on the usage of the psycho-physiological measurements in the experimental research of the TV violence impact. It was found that due to the lack of sufficient veracity in the estimation of the impact of long-term media effects, the methods of fixing the short-term effects prevail in the majority of respective studies. Our further studies in this respect will be concentrated on the problematic of formation of aggressive tendencies under the influence of television programs in the long run.


KEYWORDS: aggressiveness, experiment, meta-analysis, TV-violence, media effect.



  1. Wilson, B. (2008), “Media and children’s aggression, fear, and altruism”, The Future of Children, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 87-118.
  2. Prot, S. & Anderson, C.A. (2013), “Research methods, design, and statistics in media psychology”, in Dill K. (Ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Media Psychology, Oxford University Press, New York, pp. 109-136.
  3. Havrylets, Y.D. (2013), Short-Term Media Effects’ Impact on Youth Student Groups (Based on the TV News), PhD diss. (soc. com.), Institute of Journalism, Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, 265 p.
  4. Szabo, A. & Hopkinson, K. (2007), “Negative Psychological Effects of Watching the News in the Television: Relaxation or Another Intervention May Be Needed to Buffer Them!”, International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 57-62.
  5. Millwood, A. (2003), “How Children Interpret Screen Violence”, available at:, (accessed 01.09.2014).
  6. Rizun, V.V. & Skotnykova, T.V. (2008), Research Methods in Journalism Studies: a Textbook, Presa Ukrajiny, Kyiv, 144 p.
  7. Huesmann, L.R. (2007), “The impact of electronic media violence: Scientific theory and research”, Journal of Adolescent Health, no. 41, pp. 6-13.
  8. Anderson, C. A. & Bushman, B. J. (2002), “Human aggression”, Annual Review of Psychology, no. 53, pp. 27-51.
  9. Harris, R. J. (2004), A Cognitive Psychology of Mass Communication, L.Erlbaum Associates, NJ, 464 p.
  10. Buss, A.H. (1961), The psychology of aggression, Wiley, New York, 307 p.
  11. Milgram, S. (1963), “Behavioral Study of Obedience”, Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, no. 67, pp. 371-378.
  12. Donnerstein, E. & Berkowitz, L. (1981), “Victim reactions in aggressive erotic films as a factor in violence against women”, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, no. 41, pp. 710–724.
  13. Buss, A.H. & Perry, M. (1992), “The Aggression Questionnaire”, Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, no. 63, pp. 452–459.
  14. Elliot, D.S., Huizinga, D. & Ageton, S.S. (1985), Explaining delinquency and drug use, Sage, Beverly Hills, 176 p.
  15. Anderson, C.A. & Dill, K.E. (2000), “Video games and aggressive thoughts, feelings, and behavior in the laboratory and in life”, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, no. 78, pp. 772–790.
  16. Charlton, T., Panting, C., Davie, R., Coles, D. & Whitmarsh, L. (2000), “Children’s playground behavior across five years of broadcast television: A naturalistic study in a remote community”, Emotional and Behavioural Difficulities, no. 5 (4), pp. 4-12.
  17. Bartlett, C.P., Anderson, C.A. & Swing, E.L. (2009), “Video game effects confirmed, suspected and speculative: A review of the evidence”, Simulation & Gaming, no. 40, pp. 377–403.
  18. Bartholow, B.D., Sestir, M.A., & Davis, E. (2005), “Correlates and consequences of exposure to video game violence: Hostile personality, empathy, and aggressive behavior”, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, no. 31, pp. 1573–1586.
  19. Bushman, B.J. & Anderson, C.A. (2009), “Comfortably numb: Desensitizing effects of violent media on helping others”, Psychological Science, no. 20, pp. 273–277.
  20. Literacy (2012), “Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory Questionnaire”, available at: (accessed 26 September 2015).
  21. Vsetesti (2011), “Test of aggressiveness in relationships of A. Assinger”, available at (accessed 05 March 2015).
  22. The Black Lady (2010), “Test of internal aggression of S. Dayhoff”, available at: (accessed 05 March 2015).
  23. Calvert, S.L. & Tan, S. (1994), “Impact of virtual reality on young adults’ pshysiological arousal and aggressive thoughts: Interaction versus observation”, Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, no. 15, pp. 125–139.
  24. Bushman, B.J. (1998), “Priming effects of violent media on the accessibility of aggressive constructs in memory”, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, no. 24, pp. 537–545.
  25. Anderson, C.A., Carnagey, N.I. & Eubanks, J. (2003), “Exposure to violent media: The effects of songs with violent lyrics on aggressive thoughts and feelings”, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, no. 84, pp. 960–971.
  26. Havrylets, Y.D. (2014), “Traits of Psychological Diagnostics Methods in Social Studies and Communication”, in Proceedings of the Ukrainian National Scientific Conference “Diagnostic Criteria and Methods of Measuring the Impact of Media”, Kyiv, 10 April 2014, Kyiv, pp. 22-25.
  27. Vodopiyanova, N.E. & Starchenkova, E.S. (2008), Syndrome of Burnout: Diagnostics and Prevention, Piter Publishing Hourse, Saint-Petersburg, 336 p.
  28. Psylist (2010), “Anxiety Inventory of C. Spielberger”, available at: (accessed 26 September 2015).
  29. Testoteka (2012), “Wellbeing, Activeness and Mood Inventory”, available at: (accessed 26 September 2015).
  30. Strenziok, M., Krueger, F., Deshpande, G., Lenroot, R.K., Van der Meer, E. & Grafman J. (2011), “Fronto-parietal regulation of media violence exposure in adolescents: a multi-method study”, Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, no. 6 (5), pp. 537–547.
  31. Bartholow, B.D., Bushman, B.J. & Sestir, M.A. (2006), “Chronic violent video game exposure and desensitization to violence: Behavioral and event-related brain potential data”, Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, no. 42, pp. 532–539.
  32. Carnagey, N.L., Anderson, C.A. & Bartholow, B. D. (2007), “Media violence and social neuroscience. New questions and new opportunities”, Current Directions in Psychological Science, no. 16 (4), pp. 178–182.
  33. Dmytrotsa, O.M. (2005), Brain Event-Related Potentials in Conditions of Involuntary and Voluntary Attention in Adolescents, Abstract of the PhD diss. (biol. sci.), Ivan Franko Lviv National University, 22 p.
  34. Weber, R., Michael Mangus, J. & Huskey, R. (2015), “Brain Imaging in Communication Research: A Practical Guide to Understanding and Evaluating fMRI Studies”, Communication Methods and Measures, no 9(1-2), pp. 5–29.
  35. Carnagey, N.L., Anderson, C.A. & Bushman, B.J. (2007), “The effect of video game violence on physiological desensitization to real-life violence”, Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, no. 43, pp. 489–496.
  36. Rizun, V.V. (1988), Definition of the Text Subject: Editorial Analysis Problem, Abstract of the PhD diss. (phil. sci.), Institute of Journalism, Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, 22 p.
  37. Rizun, V.V. (1997), “Using galvanic skin reflex as a method of studying of topic component structure”, in Rizun V.V. (Ed.), Editing and Publishing: Experience, Problems and Future, Publishing Center “Kyiv University”, Kyiv, pp. 159–163.
  38. Ekman, P. (2010), Psychology of Emotions, Piter Publishing House, Saint-Petersburg, 334 p.

Comments are closed.